Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2757; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092757
by Aleksandar Radujkovic 1,Theresa Hippchen 2,Shilpa Tiwari-Heckler 2,Saida Dreher 2,Monica Boxberger 2 andUta Merle 2,*OrcID
1 Department of Internal Medicine V, University of Heidelberg, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany
2 Department of Internal Medicine IV, University of Heidelberg, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany
COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D - studies, reports, videos as of Sept 8 had
- 30 trial registrations, 1 trial result, 16 observations, 9 recommendations, 42 associations, 68 speculations, 23 videos
- COVID-19 increased: 3.5 if Ultra-Orthodox, 2.6X if dark skin (52,000 Israelis) - Sept, 2020
- 1.8 X higher risk if <12 ng vs >30 ng - independent of sex, race
- Vitamin D associated with less severe COVID-19 (Iran) - Aug 28, 2020
- Less COVID-19 at high altitude due to more Vitamin D or other possible reasons – July 2020
- Far fewer COVID-19 deaths in the summer (Europe, Canada) Aug 21
- Death rates fell as vitamin D levels typically go up in the summer.
- Many charts. 4 other possible reasons for the drop in death rates
- COVID ARDS deaths 2X more likely if less than 10 ng of Vitamin D – Aug 8, 2020
- Observations that Vitamin D, Zinc, and Selenium separately reduce COVID-19 – Aug 7, 2020
- Vitamin D Supplementation During the COVID-19 Pandemic Mayo Clinic Letter (Online June 6) Aug 5, FREE 2 page PDF
- "In Slovenia, in view of COVID-19 pandemic, medical doctors were urgently advised by leading experts to supplement vitamin D in high-risk and fragile individuals and in COVID-19 patients"
- Russian Hospital observed 5X more likely to have severe COVID-19 if Vitamin D Deficient – Aug 2020
- Vitamin D Sufficiency Reduced Risk for Morbidity and Mortality in COVID-19 Patients - Holick July 14
- No COID19 deaths in a hospital if >41 ng and <80 years old
- Preprint - was not accepted for publication by Lancet
Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life
Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses an enormous challenge to health care systems throughout the world. Without causal treatment, identification of modifiable prognostic factors may help to improve outcomes. To explore possible associations of vitamin D (VitD) status with disease severity and survival, we studied 185 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and treated at our center. VitD status at first presentation was assessed retrospectively using accredited laboratory methods. VitD deficiency was defined as serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D level < 12 ng/mL (<30 nM). Primary endpoint was severe course of disease (i.e., need for invasive mechanical ventilation and/or death, IMV/D). Within a median observation period of 66 days (range 2–92), 23 patients required IMV. A total of 28 patients had IMV/D, including 16 deaths. Ninety-three (50%) patients required hospitalization (inpatient subgroup). A total of 41 (22%) patients were VitD deficient.
When adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities, VitD deficiency was associated with higher risk of IMV/D and death (HR 6.12, 95% CI 2.79–13.42, p < 0.001 and HR 14.73, 95% CI 4.16–52.19, p < 0.001, respectively). Similar correlations were observed in the inpatient subgroup. Our study demonstrates an association between VitD deficiency and severity/mortality of COVID-19, highlighting the need for interventional studies on VitD supplementation in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals.