Vitamin K-induced effects on body fat and weight: results from a 3-year vitamin K2 intervention study.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 Jan;72(1):136-141. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.146.
Knapen MHJ 1, Jardon KM 1, Vermeer C 1.
1 R&D Group VitaK, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
I had not noticed any study of fat loss and Vitamin K before
Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains the following summary
- FACT: People who are obese have less vitamin D in their blood
- FACT: Obese need a higher dose of vitamin D to get to the same level of vit D
- FACT: When obese people lose weight the vitamin D level in their blood increases
- FACT: Adding Calcium, perhaps in the form of fortified milk, often reduces weight
- FACT: 140 trials for vitamin D intervention of obesity as of Sept 2019
- FACT: Less weight gain by senior women with > 30 ng of vitamin D
- FACT: Dieters lost additional 5 lbs if vitamin D supplementation got them above 32 ng - RCT
- FACT: Obese lost 3X more weight by adding $10 of Vitamin D
- FACT: Those with darker skins were more likely to be obese Sept 2014
- SUGGESTION: Probably need more than 4,000 IU to lose weight if very low on vitamin D due to
risk factors such as overweight, age, dark skin, live far from equator,shut-in, etc.
- Obesity category has
- Normal weight Obese (50 ng = 125 nanomole)
Items in both of the categories of Meta-analysis AND Obesity
- BMI decreased by Vitamin D (none of the trials used enough D for long enough) – meta-analysis July 2019
- Increased Vitamin D, by itself, does not reduce fat percentage – meta-analysis March 2018
- Obese are 3.4 X more likely to be Vitamin D deficient – meta-analysis Sept 2015
- Obesity causes 20 percent of all cancer, low vitamin D may be the connection – meta-analysis - Sept 2014
- Obese of all ages have lower levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2015
- No weight loss when average over trials lasting 6 weeks and only 200 IU of vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2013
Items in both of the categories of Vitamin D Receptor AND Obesity
- Obesity 2X higher risk if a poor Vitamin D Receptor (13th study) – Dec 2019
- Obesity 1.5 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis Nov 2019
- Obesity associated with poor Vitamin D genes (VDR in this study) – Jan 2018
- Skin fold thickness but not BMI associated with poor Vitamin D Receptor in Han Chinese – April 2018
- Resveratrol improves health (Vitamin D receptor, etc.)
- Obesity might be related to Vitamin D genes – July 2018
- Obesity 1.5 X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor – Dec 2017
- Obesity in 700 young adults associated with a poor Vitamin D Receptor – Jan 2018
- Obese are 30 percent more likely to have poor Vitamin D Receptor – Aug 2017
- Vitamin D restricted in getting to cells by genes, obesity, etc – Jan 2017
- Vitamin D Receptor and Obesity – several studies
- Vitamin D activates the hypothalamus (in rodents) to reduce weight and diabetes– May 2016
- Obesity strongly associated with vitamin D receptor in Saudia Arabia – July 2014
Vitamin K status has been linked to fat and glucose metabolism by several authors, but whether high vitamin K intake influences body weight or composition has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that increased vitamin K intake decreases body fat or fat distribution.
In a randomized placebo-controlled human intervention trial, 214 postmenopausal women, 55-65 years of age, received either 180 mcg/day of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7, MK-7) or placebo for 3 years. Osteocalcin (OC) carboxylation was used as a marker for vitamin K status, and fat distribution was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry total body scan.
In the total cohort, MK-7 supplementation increased circulating carboxylated OC (cOC) but had no effect on body composition. In those with an above-median response in OC carboxylation ('good responders'), MK-7 treatment resulted in a significant increase in total and human molecular weight adiponectin and a decrease in abdominal fat mass and in the estimated visceral adipose tissue area compared with the placebo group and the poor responders.
The fact that changes in body composition measures or markers for fat or glucose metabolism were not associated with changes in uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) does not support the assumption that ucOC stimulates fat metabolism in humans. Instead, high vitamin K2 intake may support reducing body weight, abdominal and visceral fat, notably in subjects showing a strong increase in cOC. A causal relation between the changes in cOC and body fat or distribution cannot be concluded from these data.