COVID-19 early warning score: a multi-parameter screening tool to identify highly suspected patients
Cong-Ying Song, Jia Xu, Jian-Qin He, Yuan-Qiang Lu
This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed. It reports new medical research that has yet to be evaluated and so should not be used to guide clinical practice.
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Non COVID-19 vs COVID-19%%%Note: Hypertension and Vitamin D are not considered~~
COVID-19 severity vs medical parameters
Note: Vitamin D is not considered
1) High ACE2 ==> Hypertention
2) High ACE2 ==> easier for Coronavirus to connect
3) Vitamin D lowers ACE2
See Coronaviruses attach to cells via ACE2, Vitamin D might reduce ACE2
BACKGROUND Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide. Effective screening for patients is important to limit the epidemic. However, some defects make the currently applied diagnosis methods are still not very ideal for early warning of patients. We aimed to develop a diagnostic model that allows for the quick screening of highly suspected patients using easy-to-get variables.
METHODS A total of 1,311 patients receiving severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleicacid detection were included, whom with a positive result were classified into COVID-19 group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to construct the diagnostic model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used for model validation.
RESULTS After analysis, signs of pneumonia on CT, history of close contact, fever, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), Tmax and sex were included in the diagnostic model. Age and meaningful respiratory symptoms were enrolled into COVID-19 early warning score (COVID-19 EWS). The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC) indicated that both of the diagnostic model (training dataset 0.956 [95%CI 0.935-0.977, P < 0.001]; validation dataset 0.960 [95%CI 0.919-1.0, P < 0.001] ) and COVID-19 EWS (training dataset 0.956 [95%CI 0.934-0.978, P < 0.001] ; validate dataset 0.966 [95%CI 0.929-1, P < 0.001]) had good discrimination capacity. In addition, we also obtained the cut-off values of disease severity predictors, such as CT score, CD8+ T cell count, CD4+ T cell count, and so on.
CONCLUSIONS The new developed COVID-19 EWS was a considerable tool for early and relatively accurately warning of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.